• Dia M.L. Philippides, CENSUS of Modern Greek Literature: Check-list of English Language Sources Useful in the Study of Modern Greek Literature (1824-1987). New Haven: Modern Greek Studies Association [Occasional Papers, 2], 1990

    Kazantzakis, Nikos (1883-1957)

    I. Philippides, CENSUS 1990, pp. 125-135 from the chapter on Authors:

    c. Book-length studies on the author himself.

    • 1. Anapliotes, John. The Real Zorbas and Nikos Kazantzakis. Lewis A. Richards, tr. Chicago: Argonaut, 1976. 163 p. Also Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1978, 163 p. (CENSUS 7.620)
    • 2. Bien, Peter. Kazantzakis and the Linguistic Revolution in Greek Literature. Princeton Essays in European and Comparative Literature, 6. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972. 291 p. (CENSUS 7.621)
    • 3. Bien, Peter. Nikos Kazantzakis. Columbia Essays on Modern Writers, 62. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972. 48 p. (CENSUS 7.622)

      Republished as "Kazantzakis" in his Three Generations of Greek Writers (Athens: Efstathiadis Group, 1983), pp. 55-94.
    • 4. *Bien, Peter A. Tempted by Happiness: Kazantzakis’ Post-Christian Christ. Pendle Hill Pamphlet, 253. Wallingford, Pa.: Pendle Hill Publications, 1984. 21 p. (CENSUS 7.623)

      A theological interpretation of The Last Temptation
    • 5. Friar, Kimon. The Spiritual Odyssey of Nikos Kazantzakis: A Talk. Edited with an introduction by Theofanis G. Stavrou. With a Supplement: "A Few Letters from Nikos Kazantzakis to Kimon Friar" (pp. 33-38) and "Critical Comment on The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel"(pp. 39-51). Minneapolis, Minn.: North Central Publishing Co., 1979. 51 p. (CENSUS 7.624)
    • 6. Kazantzakis, Helen. Nikos Kazantzakis: A Biography Based on his Letters. Amy Mims, tr. from the French. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968. 589 p. Also Oxford: Bruno Cassirer, 1968. Reprinted 1975 and 1979. *Berkeley, [Calif.]: Creative Arts Book Co., 1983. (CENSUS 7.625)
    • 7. Lea, James F. Kazantzakis: The Politics of Salvation. Helen Kazantzakis, foreword. Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1979. 207 p. (CENSUS 7.626)
    • 8. Levitt, Morton P. The Cretan Glance: The World and Art of Nikos Kazantzakis. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1980. 187 p. (CENSUS 7.627)
    • 9. *McDonough, B.T. Nietzsche and Kazantzakis. Washington D.C.: University Press of America, 1978. 91 p. (CENSUS 7.628)
    • 10. *Prevelakis, Pandelis. Nikos Kazantzakis and His Odyssey: A Study of the Poet and the Poem. Philip Sherrard, tr.; Kimon Friar, pref. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961. 192 p. (CENSUS 7.629)
    • 11. *Wessman, Robert Leo. Beyond the Abyss: The Concept of God in the Writings of Nikos Kazantzakis and Its Application to Preaching. Doctor of Ministry Thesis, School of Theology at Claremont, 1978. (CENSUS 7.630)

      Available from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, No. 7815349

    d. Shorter Studies on the author in larger works

    • 19. Aldridge, A. Owen. "The Modern Spirit: Kazantzakis and Some of His Contemporaries". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 303-313 {59}. (CENSUS 7.638)
    • 20. Andriopoulos, Dimitri Z. "A Note on Kazantzakis' Platonic References". Κρητικά Χρονικά 23 (1971), pp. 231-238. (CENSUS 7.639)
    • 21. Anghelaki-Rooke, K. "Kazantzakis's Buddha: Phantasmagoria and Struggle". JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 69-72 {60}. (CENSUS 7.640)
    • 22. Anton, J.P. "Kazantzakis and the Tradition of the Tragic". JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 53-67 {60}. (CENSUS 7.641)
    • 23. *Antonakes, Michael. "Christ as Hero and Kazantzakis". English Review of Salem State College 1, No. 1 (1973), pp. 55-65. (CENSUS 7.642)
    • 24. *Ant(h)onakes, Michael A. "Christ, Freedom and Kazantzakis". Dissertation Abstracts International 27 (1966), p. 1331A. (CENSUS 7.643)
    • 25. Banks, Arthur C. and Finley C. Campbell. "The Vision of the Negro in the Kazantzakian Universe". Phylon 25, No. 3 (Fall 1964), pp. 254-262. (CENSUS 7.644)
    • 26. Beaton, Roderick. "Myth and Text: Readings in the Modern Greek Novel". BMGS 9 (1984/85), pp. 29-53. (CENSUS 7.645)

      Re. Christ Recrucified on pp. 45-48.
    • 27. Bessa, Maria. "Nikos Kazantzakis and The Saviors of God". Michigan Academician 5, No. 4 (Spring 1973), pp. 441-447. (CENSUS 7.646)
    • 28. Beukas, Antony S. "Structure and Meaning in the Plays of Kazantzakis". Dissertation Abstracts International 35 (1975), p. 7436A. (CENSUS 7.647)
    • 29. Bien, Peter. "Buddha, Kazantzakis' Most Ambitious and Most Neglected Play". Comparative Drama 11, No. 3 (Fall 1977), pp. 252-272. (CENSUS 7.648)
    • 30. Bien, Peter. "Christopher Columbus: Kazantzakis's Final Play". JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 21-30. {60}. (CENSUS 7.649)
    • 31. Bien, Peter. "The Demoticism of Kazantzakis". In Modern Greek Writers (Edmund Keeley and Peter Bien, eds. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), pp. 145-169. (CENSUS 7.650)
    • 32. Bien, Peter. "Fratricides: Interesting Document, Defective Work of Art". JMGS 2, No. 1 (May 1984), pp. 1-21. (CENSUS 7.651)
    • 33. Bien, Peter. "O Kapetαn Mihαlis, an Epic (Romance?) Manquι". JMGS 5, No. 2 (Oct. 1987), pp. 153-173. (CENSUS 7.652)
    • 34. Bien, Peter. "Kazantzakis". In his Three Generations of Greek Writers. Introductions to Cavafy, Kazantzakis, Ritsos. Athens: Efstathiadis Group, 1983, pp. 55-94. Reprinted from {48}. (CENSUS 7.653)
    • 35. Bien, Peter. "Kazantzakis' Kapodistrias, a (Rejected) Offering to Divided Greece, 1944-1946". BMGS 3 (1977), pp. 141-173. (CENSUS 7.654)
    • 36. Bien, Peter. "Kazantzakis' Nietzschianism". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 245-266. {59}. (CENSUS 7.655)
    • 37. Bien, Peter. "Kazantzakis' The Masterbuilder with an Additional Note on Capodhistrias". The Literary Review 18, No. 4 (Summer 1975), pp. 398-411. {61}. (CENSUS 7.656)
    • 38. Bien, Peter. "The Mellowed Nationalism of Kazantzakis' Zorba the Greek". Review of National Literatures 5, No. 2 (Fall 1974), pp. 113-136. (CENSUS 7.657)
    • 39. Bien, Peter. "Nikos Kazantzakis". In The Politics of Twentieth-Century Novelists (George A. Panichas, ed. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1971), pp. 137-159. (CENSUS 7.658)
    • 40. Bien, Peter. "Zorba the Greek, Nietzsche, and the Perennial Greek Predicament". The Antioch Review 25, No. 1 (Spring 1965), pp. 147-163. (CENSUS 7.659)
    • 41. Bloch, Adele. "The Dual Masks of Nikos Kazantzakis". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 189-198. {59}. (CENSUS 7.660)
    • 42. Bloch, Adele. "Kazantsakis and the Image of Christ". Literature and Psychology 15, No. 1 (Winter 1965), pp. 2-11. (CENSUS 7.661)
    • 43. Caro, F. A. de. "Kazantzakis, Folklore, and the Politics of Reaction." Journal of Popular Culture 8, No. 4 (1974), pp. 792-804. (CENSUS 7.662)
    • 44. Chilson, Richard W. "The Christ of Nikos Kazantzakis". Thought 47, No. 184 (Spring 1972), pp. 69-89. (CENSUS 7.663)
    • 45. Colaclides, Peter. "Homer and Kazantzakis: Masters of Wordcraft". JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 85-89. {60}. (CENSUS 7.664)
    • 46. Constantinides, Elizabeth. "Kazantzakis and the Cretan Hero". JMH 2 (Oct. 1985), pp. 31-41. (CENSUS 7.665)
    • 47. Coxe, Louis O. "A Romantic Failure". Comment. Poetry 95, No. 3 (Dec. 1959), pp. 179-181. (CENSUS 7.666)
    • 48. Decavalles, Andonis C. "Kazantzakis and Prevelakis: Two Cretan Voices". JMH 2 (Oct. 1985), pp. 43-63. (CENSUS 7.667)
    • 49. Decavalles, Andonis. "Three Poets: Notes in Passing". The Charioteer 22 and 23 (1980/1981), pp. 16-22. {57}. (CENSUS 7.668)

      Re. Kazantzakis, Seferis, and Elytis
    • 50. Decavalles, Andonis. "The Torrent and the Sun". Comment. Poetry 95, No. 3 (Dec. 1959), pp. 175-178. (CENSUS 7.669)
    • 51. Demetrius, James K. "Nikos Kazantzakis in Spain". In Studies in Honor of M.J. Benardete (Izaak A. Langnas and Barton Sholod, eds. Essays in Hispanic and Sephardic Culture. New York: Las Americas Publishing Company, 1965), pp. 215-225. (CENSUS 7.670)
    • 52.Dillistone, F. W. "The Shepherd is Smitten". In his The Novelist and the Passion Story (New York: Sheed and Ward. 1960; also St. James's Place, London: Collins, 1960), pp. 69-91. (CENSUS 7.671)

      Re. The Greek Passion
    • 53. Dombrowski, Daniel A. "Eating and Spiritual Exercises: Food for Thought from Saint Ignatius and Nikos Kazantzakis". Christianity and Literature 32, No. 4 (Summer 1983), pp. 25-32. (CENSUS 7.672)
    • 54. Doulis, Tom. "Kazantzakis and the Meaning of Suffering". Northwest Review 6, No. 1 (Winter 1963), pp. 33-57. (CENSUS 7.673)
    • 55. Elsman, Kenneth R. and John V. Knapp. "Life-Span Development in Kazantzakis's Zorba the Greek". International Fiction Review 11, No. 1 (Winter 1984), pp. 37-44. (CENSUS 7.674)
    • 56. Falconio, Donald. "Critics of Kazantzakis: Selected Checklist of Writings in English". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 314-326. {59}. (CENSUS 7.675)
    • 57. Flay, Joseph C. "The Erotic Stoicism of Nikos Kazantzakis". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 293-302. {59}. (CENSUS 7.676)
    • 58. Friar, Kimon. "George Seferis: The Greek Poet Who Won the Nobel Prize". Saturday Review 46 (30 Nov. 1963), pp. 16-20. (CENSUS 7.677)

      Compares Seferis and Kazantzakis
    • 59. Friar, Kimon. "Nikos Kazantzakis in the United States". The Literary Review 18, No. 4 (Summer 1975) pp. 381-397. {61}. (CENSUS 7.678)
    • 60. Friar, Kimon. "A Unique Collaboration: Translating The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 215-244. {59}. (CENSUS 7.679)
    • 61. Friar, Kimon et al. "Nikos Kazantzakis". In Twentieth Century Literary Criticism 2: Excerpts from Criticism of the Works of Novelists, Poets, Playwrights, Short Story Writers, and Other Creative Writers, 1900-1960 (Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research Co., 1979, pp. 311-324. (CENSUS 7.680)

      Excerpts from essays of Kimon Friar, Pandelis Prevelakis, W.B. Stanford, Peter Bien, Colin Wilson, Morton P. Levitt, Adθle Bloch, Joseph C. Flay, Andreas K. Poulakidas.
    • 62. Georgopoulos, N. "Kazantzakis, Bergson, Lenin and the 'Russian Experiment'". JHD 5, No. 4 (Winter 1979), pp. 33-44. (CENSUS 7.681)
    • 63. Georgopoulos, N. "Marxism and Kazantzakis". BMGS 3 (1977), pp. 175-200. Reprinted in *Varieties of Twentieth Century Socialism (Jack Thomas, ed. Chicago, Ill.: Nelson Hall, 1977). (CENSUS 7.682)
    • 64. Green, Peter. "Odysseus Translated". TLS (15 May 1959), p. 288. Reprinted in his *Essays in Antiquity (London: John Murray, 1960; New York: World Publishing Co., 1960). (CENSUS 7.683)
    • 65. Green, Roger. "A Frank Says 'Thank You' to Nikos Kazantzakis". JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 31-39. {60}. (CENSUS 7.684)
    • 66. Green, Roger. "Kazantzakis in Iraklion: 'A Worthy Pioneer'". The Cornhill Magazine, No. 1053 (Autumn 1967), pp. 189-216. (CENSUS 7.685)
    • 67. Gregory, Dorothy M. - T. "Kazantzakis and Sikelianos: Complementary Spirits". JMH 2 (Oct. 1985), pp. 65-73. (CENSUS 7.686)
    • 68. Hadgopoulos, Saralyn Poole. "Odysseus' Choice: A Comparison and Contrast of Works by Albert Camus and Nikos Kazantzakis". Dissertation Abstracts International 27 (July-Oct. 1966), p. 204A. (CENSUS 7.687)
    • 69. Hartocollis, Peter. "Mysticism and Violence: The Case of Nikos Kazantzakis". The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 55, Part 2 (1974), pp. 205-210. (CENSUS 7.688)

      Followed by P. Sakellaropoulos, "A Discussion of the Paper by Peter Hartocollis on 'Mysticism and Violence': The Case of Nikos Kazantzakis", ibid. pp. 211-213
    • 70. Hatzantonis, Emmanuel. "Captain Sole: Don Quijote's After-Image in Kazantzakis' Odyssey". Hispania 46, No. 2 (May 1963), pp. 283-286. (CENSUS 7.689)
    • 71. Hatzantonis, Emmanuel. "Kazantzakis' Spiritual Itinerary through Spain". Hispania 49, No. 4 (Dec. 1966), pp. 787-792. (CENSUS 7.690)
    • 72. Hoffman, Frederick J. "The Friends of God: Dostoevsky and Kazantzakis". In his The Imagination's New Beginning: Theology and Modern Literature (University of Notre Dame Ward-Phillips Lectures in English Language and Literature, 1. Notre Dame & London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1967) pp. 49-72. (CENSUS 7.691)
    • 73. Holliday, Vivian L. "The Feminine Melody in Kazantzakis' Odyssey". Neo-Hellenika 3 (1978), pp. 56-67. (CENSUS 7.692)
    • 74. Ikaris, Despoina Spanos. "Editorial". The Charioteer 22 and 23 (1980/1981), pp. 6-15. {57}. (CENSUS 7.693)
    • 75.Ioannou, Yorghos. "Life and Deeds of Alexis Zorbas: A Novel of Lived Experience". Elli Marmara and George Thaniel, trs. The Amaranth 3 (1982), pp. 5-11. (CENSUS 7.694)
    • 76.Jusdanis, Gregory. "The Politics of Criticism: Deconstruction, Kazantzakis, 'Literature'". BMGS 9 (1984/85), pp. 161-186. (CENSUS 7.695)
    • 77. Karanikas, Alexander. "Kazantzakis and his Heroes". Athene 18, No. 1 (Spring 1957), pp. 4-9. (CENSUS 7.696)
    • 78. Karnezis, George T. "Zorba the Greek: The Artist and Experience". In A Modern Miscellany (Carnegie Series in English, No. 11. Pittsburgh, [Pa.]: Carnegie-Mellon University, 1970), pp. 43-52. (CENSUS 7.697)
    • 79. Kazantzaki, Eleni N. "Nikos Kazantzakis and the Freedom". Folia Neohellenica 5 (1983), pp. 50-64. {58}. (CENSUS 7.698)
    • 80. Kazantzakis, Helen. "Kazantzakis and Freedom". Journal of the Hellenic American Society 1, No. 3 (1974), pp. 1-12. (CENSUS 7.699)
    • 81.Kerenyi, Karl. "Prologue to Comedy: A Tragedy in One Act". Peter Bien, tr. The Literary Review 18, No. 4 (Summer 1975), pp. 412-416. {61}. (CENSUS 7.700)
    • 82. Laourdas, Basil. "Ideas and Ideals in Contemporary Greek Literature". Balkan Studies 9, No. 1 (1968), pp. 155-156. (CENSUS 7.701)

      On Angelos Sikelianos, Nikos Kazantzakis, and Pandelis Prevelakis
    • 83. Levitt, Morton P. "The Cretan Glance: The World and Art of Nikos Kazantzakis". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 163-188. {59}. (CENSUS 7.702)
    • 84. Levitt, Morton P. "Homer, Joyce, Kazantzakis; Modernism and the Epic Tradition". JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 41-45. {60}. (CENSUS 7.703)
    • 85. Levitt, Morton P. "Kazantzakis' Odyssey: A Modern Rival to Homer". JHD 5, No. 2 (Summer 1978), pp. 19-45. (CENSUS 7.704)
    • 86. Levitt, Morton. "A Modern Byzantine Mosaic: The Greek Passion of Nikos Kazantzakis". Neo-Hellenika 3 (1978), pp. 7-36. (CENSUS 7.705)
    • 87. Levitt, Morton P. "The Modernist Kazantzakis and The Last Temptation of Christ". Mosaic 6, No. 2 (Winter 1973), pp. 103-124. (CENSUS 7.706)
    • 88.Littlewood, A. R. "The Apple in the Sexual Imagery of Kazantzakis: A Study in the Continuity of a Greek Tradition". Neo-Hellenika 3 (1978), pp. 37-55. (CENSUS 7.707)
    • 89. Manousakis, George. "The Characters in Freedom or Death: A Kazantzakean Anthropological Scale". Marios Philippides, tr. The Charioteer 22 and 23 (1980/1981), pp. 66-102. {57}. (CENSUS 7.708)
    • 90. McKeever, Clare. "Man's Response to a Functional World Echoed in The Waste Land and Zorba the Greek". Humanitas 6, No. 3 (Winter 1971), pp. 325-350. Republished in *Creative Formation of Life and World (Adrian Van Kaam and Susan A. Muto, eds. Washington, D.C.: UP of America, 1982), pp. 177-202. (CENSUS 7.709)
    • 91. Merrill, Reed B. "Zorba the Greek and Nietzschean Nihilism". Mosaic 8, No. 2 (1975), pp. 99-113. (CENSUS 7.710)
    • 92. Mihailides, Kostas. "Ascent, the Interpretive Figure of Being in Nikos Kazantzakis". Edward Phinney, tr. The Charioteer 22 and 23 (1980/1981), pp. 103-115. {57}. (CENSUS 7.711)
    • 93. Moatti-Fine, J. "Odysseus-Moses, or God's Presence in History". Jocelyn M. Phelps, tr. from the French. JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 73-78. {60}. (CENSUS 7.712)
    • 94. *Notopoulos, James A. "Kazantzakis' Golden Extremes" The Virginia Quarterly Review 35 (1959), pp. 320-326. (CENSUS 7.713)

      On Kazantzakis' Odyssey and the mythical method.
    • 95. Papaioannou, John G. "Kazantzakis and Music". JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 79-83. {60}. (CENSUS 7.714)
    • 96. *Parker, Sandra A. "Kazantzakis in America: A Bibliography of Translations and Comment". Bulletin of Bibliography 25 (Sept. - Dec. 1968), pp. 166-170. (CENSUS 7.715)
    • 97.Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Dostoevsky, Kazantzakis' Unacknowledged Mentor". Comparative Literature 21, No. 4 (Fall 1969), pp. 307-318. (CENSUS 7.716)
    • 98. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Kazantzakis and Bergson: Metaphysic Aestheticians". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 267-283. {59}. (CENSUS 7.717)
    • 99. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Kazantzakis as a Symbolist Poet". Folia Neohellenica 4 (1982), pp. 160-181. (CENSUS 7.718)
    • 100. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Kazantzakis' Recurrent Victim: Woman". Southern Humanities Review 6, No. 2 (Spring 1972), pp. 177-189. (CENSUS 7.719)
    • 101. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Kazantzakis' Spiritual Exercises and Buddhism". Comparative Literature 27, No. 3 (Summer 1975), pp. 208-217. (CENSUS 7.720)
    • 102.Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Kazantzakis' Zorba the Greek and Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra". Philological Quarterly 49, No. 2 (Apr. 1970), pp. 234-244. (C
    • 103. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Nikos Kazantzakis: 'Odysseus as a Symbol'". Filologia Moderna 9, No. 37 (Nov. 1969), pp. 3-22. Also Κρητικά Χρονικά 21 (1969), pp. 256-272. (CENSUS 7.722)
    • 104. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Nikos Kazantzakis: Odysseus as Phenomenon". Comparative Literature Studies 6, No. 2 (June 1969), pp. 126-140. (CENSUS 7.723)
    • 105. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "The Novels of Kazantzakis and their Existential Sources". Dissertation Abstracts International 28 (1967), pp. 2260A. (CENSUS 7.724)
    • 106. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "The Operatic Aspects of Kazantzakis' 'Broken Souls'". Folia Heohellenica 5 (1983), pp. 157-173. {58}. (CENSUS 7.725)
    • 107. Poulakidas, Andreas K. "Steinbeck, Kazantzakis, and Socialism". Steinbeck Quarterly 3, No. 3 (Summer 1970), pp. 62-72. (CENSUS 7.726)
    • 108. Presley, Del E. "Buddha and the Butterfly: Unifying Motifs in Kazantzakis' Zorba". Notes on Contemporary Literature 2, No. 1 (Jan. 1972), pp. 2-4. (CENSUS 7.727)
    • 109. Prevelakis, Pandelis. "Kazantzakis: Life and Works". Peter Bien, tr. The Charioteer 22 and 23 (1980/1981), pp. 23-65. {57}. (CENSUS 7.728)
    • 110. Prevelakis, Pandelis. "Kazantzakis-Sikelianos: The Chronicle of a Friendship". Kimon Friar, tr. JHD 10, No. 4 (Winter 1983), pp. 5-20. {60}.(CENSUS 7.729)
    • 111. Prevelakis, Pandelis. "from Nikos Kazantzakis and his Odyssey". Philip Sherrard, tr. The Charioteer 1, No. 1 (Summer 1960), pp. 10-36. (CENSUS 7.730)
    • 112. Raizis, M. Byron. "Kazantzakis' Ur-Odysseus, Homer, and Gerhart Hauptmann". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 199-214. {59}. (CENSUS 7.731)
    • 113.Raizis, M. Byron. "Nikos Kazantzakis and Chaucer". Comparative Literature Studies 6, No. 2 (June 1969), pp. 141-147. (CENSUS 7.732)
    • 114. Raizis, M. Byron. "Symbolism and Meaning in Kazantzakis' The Greek Passion". Ball State University Forum 11, No. 3 (Summer 1970), pp. 57-66. (CENSUS 7.733)
    • 115. Rexine, John E. "Kazantzakis's 'Cretan Glance' and his 'Politics of Salvation'". JHD 9, No. 1 (Spring 1982), pp. 91-97. (CENSUS 7.734)

      Re. Levitt and Lea books. {53, 52}
    • 116. Richards, Lewis A. "Christianity in the Novels of Kazantzakis". Western Humanities Review 21, No. 1 (Winter 1967), pp. 49-55. (CENSUS 7.735)
    • 117. Richards, Lewis A. "Fact and Fiction in Nikos Kazantzakis' Alexis Zorbas". Western Humanities Review 18, No. 4 (Autumn 1964), pp. 353-359. (CENSUS 7.736)
    • 118. Savvas, Minas. "Kazantzakis and Marxism". JML 2, No. 2 (1971-1972), pp. 284-292. {59}. (CENSUS 7.737)
    • 119. Scouffas, George. "Kazantzakis: Odysseus and the 'Cage of Freedom'". Accent 19, No. 4 (Autumn 1959), pp. 234-246. (CENSUS 7.738)
    • 120. Stanford, W.B. "No Rest for Ulysses: From Homer to Kazantzakis". Encounter 13, No. 1 (July 1959), pp. 44-50. (CENSUS 7.739)
    • 121. Stanford, W.B. "The Re-integrated Hero". Is Chapter 15 in his The Ulysses Theme: A Study in the Adaptability of a Traditional Hero (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1954. Second edition, 1963. Also Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1968), pp. 211-240. (CENSUS 7.740)
    • 122. Stavrou, C.N. "The Limits of the Possible: Nikos Kazantzakis's Arduous Odyssey". Southwest Review 57, No. 1 (Winter 1972), pp. 54-65. (CENSUS 7.741)
    • 123. Stavrou, C.N. "Mr. Bloom and Nikos' Odysseus". The South Atlantic Quarterly 62, No. 1 (Winter 1963), pp. 107-118. (CENSUS 7.742)
    • 124. Stavrou, C.N. "Some Notes on Nikos Kazantzakis". The Colorado Quarterly 12, No. 4 (Spring 1964), pp. 317-334. (CENSUS 7.743)
    • 125. Stavrou, Patroclos. "Nikos Kazantzakis and Cyprus". Folia Neohellenica 5 (1983), pp. 65-70. {58}. (CENSUS 7.744)
    • 126. Szabo, Kalman. "Zorbas: A New Model of Unalienated Man". Folia Neohellenica 3 (1981), pp. 130-150. (CENSUS 7.745)
    • 127. Taylor, Timothy W. "Kazantzakis and the Cinema". BMGS 6 (1980), pp. 157-168. (CENSUS 7.746)
    • 128. Thaniel, George. "Odysseus and Death: A Study of Kazantzakis' Odyssey". Neo-Hellenika 3 (1978), pp. 68-80. (CENSUS 7.747)
    • 129. Theroux, Paul. "'You Orientals!: Kazantzakis' England". Encounter 39, No. 6 (Dec. 1972), pp. 71-74. Review Article. (CENSUS 7.748)
    • 130. Will, Frederic. "Kazantzakis' Making of God: A Study in Literature and Philosophy". The Iowa Review 3, No. 4 (Fall 1972), pp. 109-124. (CENSUS 7.749)
    • 131. Will, Frederic. "Kazantzakis' Odyssey". In Hereditas: Seven Essays on the Modern Experience of the Classical (Frederic Will, ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1964), pp. 55-73. (CENSUS 7.750)
    • 132. Wilson, Colin. "Kazantzakis". Appendix II in his The Strength to Dream: Literature and the Imagination (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1962), pp. 203-211. Also *Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1962, pp. 239-249. (CENSUS 7.751)
    • 133. Wilson, Colin. "Nikos Kazantzakis". Mediterranean Review 1, No. 1 (Fall 1970), pp. 33-47. (CENSUS 7.752)
    • 134. Ziolkowski, Theodore. [Treats The Greek Passion and also The Last Temptation.] In his Fictional Transfigurations of the Jesus (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), pp. 16-17, 124-140, 270-298. (CENSUS 7.753)

    II. From other pages of the Philippides CENSUS 1990:

    • 1. Gianos, Mary P., ed. and tr. Introduction to Modern Greek Literature: An Anthology of Fiction, Drama, and Poetry. Kimon Friar, tr. of poetry. New York: Twayne Publishers. Inc., 1969. 548 p. (CENSUS 4.3)

      Aims at a chronological presentation of Greek writers born between 1850 and 1914. I. 'Fiction' includes works of: Panayiotis Kanellopoulos, I. M. Panayotopoulos, Emmanuel Roidis, Alexandros Papadiamantis, Konstantinos Theotokis, Andreas Karkavitsas, Konstantinos Hadzopoulos, Stratis Myrivilis, Elias Venezis, Kosmas Politis, Petros Haris, Takis Doxas, Yiannis Manglis, Markos Lazaridis, Demetrios Yiakos. II. 'Drama': Gregorios Xenopoulos, George Theotokas, Pandelis Prevelakis, Loukis Akritas. III. 'Poetry': Constantine Cavafis, Angelos Sikelianos, Nikos Kazantzakis, Kostas Ouranis, Takis Papatzonis, Kostas Kariotakis, George Seferis, George Themelis, Zoe Karelli, Andreas Embiricos, George Thomas Vafopoulos, Alexander Baras, George Sarandaris, Melissanthi, Yannis Ritsos, Nikos Engonopoulos, Alexander Matsas, Odysseus Elytis, Nikiphoros Vrettakos, Nikos Gatsos, Takis Varvitsiotis.
    • 2. Pappageotes, George C., Philip D. Emmanuel, and Artemis P. Emmanuel, eds. and trs. Modern Greek Literary Gems / Εκλεκτές pages. New York: R. D. Cortina Company, 1962. 64 p. Bilingual edition. (CENSUS 4.5)

      Contains "The Bridge of Arta", and selections from the works of: Regas Pheraios, Andreas Kalvos, Dionysios Solomos, Alexandros Rangavis, Aristotelis Valaoritis, Kostas Krystallis, Lorentzos Mavilis, Alexandros Papadiamantis, John Psycharis, John Vlachoyannis, Kostis Palamas, George Drosinis, Aristomenis Provelengios, Gregorios Xenopoulos, C. P. Cavafy, Angelos Sikelianos, George Seferis, Spyros Melas, Stratis Myrivilis, Nikos Kazantzakis, Pantelis Prevelakis.
    • 3. *Barnstone, Willis et al., eds. Modern European Poetry: French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian, Spanish. New York; Toronto; London; Bantam Books Inc., 1966. 605 p. (CENSUS 4.23)

      "Greek Poetry" [Kimon Friar, ed. and tr.] (pp. 187-268): Introduction, and poems of: Angelos Sikelianos, Nikos Kazantzakis, George Seferis, George Themelis, Demetrius Antoniou, Yannis Ritsos, Alexander Matsas, Nikos Engonopoulos, Odysseus Elytis, Nikos Gatsos, Miltos Sahtouris, Eleni Vakalo, Nanos Valaoritis, Nikos Karouzos, Dinos Christianopoulos.
    • 4. Dalven, Rae, tr. and ed. Modern Greek Poetry. Second edition, revised and enlarged. New York: Russell & Russell, 1971. 375 p.* 1st edition: New York: Gaer, 1949. (CENSUS 4.26)

      The second edition includes: Rae Dalven, "The Growth of Modern Greek Poetry" (essay) (pp. 23-40) and "The Folk Song: Source of Modern Greek Poetry" (essay) (pp. 41-56); Vincenzo Kornaros, "Erotokritos" (excerpt); works of Modern Greek poetry by the following authors: Rhigas Pheraios, Yiannis Vilaras, Andreas Calvos, Dionysios Solomos, Julius Typaldos, Aristotelis Valaoritis, Gerasimos Markoras, Georgios Vizyinos, Alexandros Pallis, Kostes Palamas, Georgios Drossinis, Lorenzo Mavilis, C. P. Cavafy, Kostas Krystallis, Kostes Hatzopoulos, Miltiades Malakassis, Yiannis Griparis, Petros Vlastos, Lambros Porphyras, Zacharias Papandoniou, Apostolos Melachrinos, Nicholas Karvounis, Sotiris Skipis, Myrtiotissa, Angelos Sikelianos, Kostas Varnalis, Markos Avgeris, Nikos Kazantzakis, Galatea Kazantzakis, Kostas Ouranis, Kostas Kariotakis, Georgios Seferis, Tefcros Anthias, Josepth Eliyia, Kassaris Emmanuel, Michalis Stasinopoulos, Sophia Mavroidi Papadaky, Nicholas Pappas, Rita Boumy Pappas, Yiannis Sphakianakis, Yiannis Ritsos, Nicephorus Vrettakos, Odysseus Elytis, Georgios Themelis, Andreas Embirikos, Zoe Karelli, I. M. Panayiotopoulos, Georgios Thomas Vafopoulos, Georgios Sarandaris, Nikos Engonopoulos, Melissanthi, Nikos Gatsos, Takis Varvitsiotis, Minas Dimakis, Crito Athanasoulis, Georgios Geralis, Ares Diktaios, Georgios Kotsiras, Kostas Kovanis.
    • 5. Friar, Kimon, ed., tr., and epilogue. The Greeks: A Celebration of the Greek People through Poetry and Photographs. John Veltri, photography; Lawrence Durrell, preface; Odysseus Elytis, commentary. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1984. 144 p. (CENSUS 4.32)

      Contains poetry of: George Seferis, Yannis Ritsos, George Themelis, Odysseus Elytis, Alexander Matsas, Nikos Kazantzakis, Eleni Vakalo, D. P. Papadhitsas, George Sarandaris, G. T. Vafopoulos.
    • 6. Friar, Kimon, tr. Modern Greek Poetry: From Cavafis to Elytis. With introduction, an essay on translation, and notes. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973. 780 p. (CENSUS 4.33)

      Introduction (pp. 1-130) includes: The Historical Background; Language and Literature; The Schools; Forerunners and Traditionalists; Traditions and Transitions; The Turning Point and the Surrealists; The Social Poets; Religious and Existentialist Modes; A Few Observations. Poetry translations (pp. 131-645) include works of: Constantine Cavafis, Nikos Kazantzakis, Kostas Varnalis, Angelos Sikelianos, Kostas Ouranis, Takis Papatsonis, Kostas Kariotakis, George Seferis, George Themelis, Zoe Karelli, Andreas Embiricos, I. M. Panayotopoulos, G. T. Vafopoulos, Nikos Pappas, Rita Boumi-Pappas, D. I. Antoniou, Alexander Baras, George Sarandaris, Nicolas Calas, Nikos Ghavriil Pendzikis, Pandelis Prevelakis, Yannis Ritsos, Nikos Kavadhias, Andreas Karandonis, Melissanthi, Alexander Matsas, Nikos Engonopoulos, Odysseus Elytis, Nikos Gatsos, Nikiphoros Vrettakos. Concludes with a section containing essays on translation (pp. 647-678); biographies, bibliographies, notes (pp. 679-759); and a select general bibliography (pp. 761-769).
    • 7. Friar, Kimon, tr. Modern Greek Poetry. Including: George Seferis, Nobel Prize 1963; Odysseus Elytis, Nobel Prize 1976. With introduction, commentaries, and notes. Athens: Efstathiadis Group, 1982. 326 p. (CENSUS 4.34)

      Contains: an introduction (pp. 13-31) and works of: Constantine Cavafis, Nikos Kazantzakis, Kostas Varnalis, Angelos Sikelianos, Kostas Ouranis, Takis Papatsonis, Kostas Kariotakis, George Seferis, George Themelis, Zoe Karelli, Andreas Embiricos, I. M. Panayotopoulos, G. T. Vafopoulos, Nikos Pappas, Rita Boumi-Pappa, D. I. Antoniou, Alexander Baras, George Sarandaris, Nicolas Calas, Nikos Gavriil Pendzikis, Pandelis Prevelakis, Yannis Ritsos, Nikos Kavadhias, George Stoyannidhis, Andreas Karandonis, Melissanthi, Alexander Matsas, Nikos Engonopoulos, Zisis Economou, Odysseus Elytis, Nikos Gatsos, Nikiphoros Vrettakos. Concludes with biographies, bibliographies, commentary and notes (pp. 279-319). Is a condensed version of the preceding entry.
    • 8. Mitsakis, K., Modern Greek Music and Poetry. An Anthology. Mikis Theodorakis, pref. Athens: Editions "Grigoris", 1979. 533 p. Bilingual edition. (CENSUS 4.50)

      Includes works of: George Chortatsis, Vitsentzos Kornaros, Andreas Kalvos, Dionysios Solomos, George Vizyinos, Argyris Eftaliotis, Vassilis Michaelidis, Kostis Palamas, C. P. Cavafy, Dimitris Lipertis, Kostas Chatzopoulos, Zacharias Papantoniou, Nikos Kazantzakis, Angelos Sikelianos, Kostas Varnalis, Napoleon Lapathiotis, Kostas Karyotakis, Yannis Skarimbas, George Seferis, George Themelis, Pantelis Prevelakis, Yannis Ritsos, Nikos Engonopoulos, Nikos Kavadias, Odysseus Elytis, Nikiphoros Vrettakos, Menelaos Loundemis, Minas Dimakis, Manolis Anagnostakis. Translators include F. H. Marshall, M. B. Raizis, K. Trypanis, E. Keeley, Ph. Sherrard, J. Mavrogordato, K. Friar, J. Gaist, R. Dalven, A. Mims, G. Savidis.
    • 9. New World Writing. Second Mentor Selection. New York: The New American Library, Nov. 1952. (CENSUS 4.51)

      "Four Contemporary Greek Poets" [Kimon Friar, tr.] (pp. 102-108). Includes works of: Nikos Kazantzakis, Odysseus Elytis, Takis Papatzonis, George Seferis.
    • 10. Raizis, M. Byron. Greek Poetry Translations: Views - Texts - Reviews. Athens: Efstathiadis Group, 1981. 248 p. (CENSUS 4.53)

      Includes: an introduction by Raizis on literary translation (pp. 12-29), an anthology of Greek poetry (pp. 35-171), and several critical reviews of books of Greek poetry in translation (pp. 173-240). The anthology is divided into: ‘Traditional Poetry’ (pp. 35-141), with works by Dionysios Solomos, John Polemis, George Drosinis, John Gryparis, Kostas Karyotakis, Michael D. Stasinopoulos, Nikos Kazantzakis, Andreas Embiricos, Nikos Engonopoulos, Markos Avyeris, Nikephoros Vrettakos, Ares Diktaios, Zoe Karelli, George Kotsiras, Dimitris Doukaris, Triandafillos Pittas, Kostes Kokorovits, Koula Yiokarini, Philip Drakodaides, Takis Antoniou, George Themelis, Takis Varvitsiotis, Nikos Alexis Aslanoglou, George X. Stoyannides, Dinos Christianopoulos, Panos Thasites, Anestis Evangelou; ‘Cypriot Poems’ (pp. 144-155), with works of Kypros Chrysanthis, Manos Kralis, Petros Sophas, Yannis K. Papadopoulos, Nadina Dimitriou. The final section contains works of George Seferis (pp. 157-171).
    • 11. Columbia Dictionary of Modern European Literature. Jean-Albert Bede and William B. Edgerton, general eds.; Peter Bien, editor of Greek section. 2nd edition, fully revised and enlarged. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. 895 p. (CENSUS 6.11) Contains summary article on Modern Greek literature by Christos Alexiou (pp. 327-330); also separate entries on a number of authors, including: C. Cavafy, O. Elytis, K. Kariotakis, N. Kazantzakis, S. Myrivilis, K. Palamas, Y. Ritsos, G. Seferis, A. Sikelianos, K. Varnalis.
    • 12. Thorlby, Anthony K., ed. The Penguin Companion to Literature: Europe. Revised edition. London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1971. 908 p. (CENSUS 6.16)

      Includes entries on: Digenis Akrites Basileios, the Prodromic Poems, Maksim the Greek, G. Hortatzis, the Erotokritos, A. Korais, A. Kalvos, D. Solomos, A. Valaoritis, E. Roidis, A. Papadiamantis, Y. Psycharis, K. Palamas, C. P. Cavafy, A. Sikelianos, N. Kazantzakis, S. Myrivilis, T. Papatsonis, G. Seferis, A. Embirikos, I. Venezis, G. Theotokas, P. Prevelakis, Y. Ritsos, D. Capetanakis, O. Elytis, N. Valaoritis, et al.
    • 13. Kazantzakis, Nikos. "Cavafy". Chapter in his Journeying: Travels in Italy, Egypt, Sinai, Jerusalem and Cyprus (Themi Vasils and Theodora Vasils, trs. San Francisco: Creative Arts Books Co. [Donald S. Ellis, Publisher], 1984), pp. 74-79 {12}. (CENSUS 7.208)
    • 14. *Constantinidis, Stratos E. "The New Dionysus of Modern Greek Poetic Drama: Crucifix or Grapevine?". In From the Bard to Broadway (Karelisa V. Hartigan, ed. University of Florida Department of Classics Comparative Drama Conference Papers, 7. Lanham, Md.: University Presses of America, 1987), pp. 21-31. (CENSUS 7.941)

      Re. Trisevgeni. Treatment of myth of Dionysus compared to Angelos Sikelianos and Nikos Kazantzakis.

    • BMGS Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies
    • JHD Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora
    • JMGS Journal of Modern Greek Studies
    • JMH Journal of Modern Hellenism
    • JML Journal of Modern Literature
    • TLS [London] Times Literary Supplement

    An asterisk placed at the beginning of an entry or at the start of a reference indicates that it has not been possible to inspect that item personally: the information is that available from bibliographical sources. Square brackets have been used not only to indicate information supplied independently of the title page of a bibliographical source, but also in order to distinguish categories, such as the titles or translators of shorter works listed as part of the contents of larger ones. Cross-references are denoted by placing entry numbers within curly brackets.

    Permission to use the above bibliography was granted by:
    •  Dia M. L. Philippides, compiler of the census.
    Contact: Dia M. L. Philippides, Professor of Classical Studies, Boston College,
    Chestnut Hill, MA 02138, USA
    Fax: 001-617-552-8828
    Email: dia.philippides@bc.edu
    • Τhe publisher, Modern Greek Studies Association.
    Contact: Prof. S. Victor Papacosma, Modern Greek Studies Association,
    P O Box 945, Brunswick, ME 04011, USA
    FAX: 001-203-392-5670 (Professor John Iatrides at Southern Connecticut State University)
    Email: iatrides@scsud.ctstateu.edu.

    © Dia M.L. Philippides & Modern Greek Studies Association, 1990

1883. Kazantzakis is born on 18/30** February in Iraklion, Crete, then still part of the Ottoman Empire.

His father Mihalis, a dealer in agricultural products and wine, is from Varvari, now the site of the Kazantzakis Museum. Much later, Mihalis is to become one of the models for Kapetan Mihalis in the novel Freedom or Death.

Kazantzakis' father, on whom Kapetan Michalis,
protagonist of Freedom or Death was modelled

1912. He introduces Bergson's philosophy to Greek intellectuals by means of a long lecture delivered to members of the Educational Association and later published in the association's Bulletin.

When the first Balkan War breaks out, he volunteers for the army and is assigned to Prime Minister Venizelos' private office.

1915. Again with Sikelianos, he tours Greece. In his diary he writes, "My three great teachers: Homer, Dante, Bergson. "In retreat at a monastery, he completes a book (now lost), probably on the Holy Mountain. He notes in his diary that his motto is "come l' uom s' eterna" (how man saves himself ' from Dante's "Inferno" 15.85).

He most likely writes the plays " Christ", "Odisseas" and " Nikiforos Fokas " in first draft. In order to sign a contract for harvesting wood from Mount Athos, he travels to Thessaloniki in October. There he witnesses the British and French forces as they disembark to fight on the Salonica Front in World War I.

In the same month, reading Tolstoy, he decides that religion is more important than literature and vows to begin where Tolstoy left off.".

In Athens with Galatea, his first wife

Yiorgis Zorbas, on whom "Zorba the Greek" was modelled

Kazantzakis with the poet Angelos Sikelianos

We became abrupt, immediate friends. So greatly did we differ, we divined at once that each needed the other and that the two of us together would constitute the whole man.
We became abrupt, immediate friends. So greatly did we differ, we divined at once that each needed the other and that the two of us together would constitute the whole man. I was coarse and taciturn, with the tough hide of a peasant. Full of questions and metaphysical struggles, I remained undeceived by striking exteriors, for I divined the skull beneath the beautiful face. I was devoid of naïveté, sure of nothing. I had not been born a prince; I was struggling to become one.
He was jolly, with a stately grandiloquence, sure of himself, the possessor of noble flesh and the unsophisticated, strength-engendering faith that he was immortal.
Certain he had been born a prince, he had no need to suffer or struggle to become one.
Nor to yearn for the summit, since -of this he was certain also- he had already attained the summit.
He was convinced that he was unique and irreplaceable.
He would not condescend to compare himself with any other great artist, dead or alive, and this naïveté gave him vast self-confidence and strength


Later, when I knew him better, I said to him one day,

- "The great difference between us, Angelos, is this: you believe you have found salvation, and believing this, you are saved;
I believe that salvation does not exist, and believing this I am saved."


Nikos Kazantzakis, Report to Greco.
Translation by Peter A. Bien,
New York : 1965, Bantam Books Inc., pp. 181-182.

1922.An advance contract with an Athenian publisher for a series of school textbooks enables him to leave Greece again. He remains in Vienna from 19 May until the end of August. There he contracts a facial eczema that the dissident Freudian therapist Wilhelm Stekel calls "the saints' disease." In the midst of Vienna's postwar decadence, he studies Buddhistic scriptures and begins a play on Buddha's life. He also studies Freud and sketches out "Askitiki".

September finds him in Berlin, where he learns about Greece's utter defeat by the Turks, the so called "Asia Minor disaster". Abandoning his previous nationalism, he aligns himself with communist revolutionaries. He is influenced in particular by Rahel Lipstein and her cell group of radical young women. Tearing up his uncompleted play "Buddha", he begins it again in a new form. He also begins Askitiki , his attempt to reconcile communist activism with Buddhist resignation. His dream being to settle in the Soviet Union, he takes Russian lessons.

1922. Rahel Lipstein-Minc

A handwritten dedication to Rahel Minc

Cover of Rahel Lipstein-Minc's Psaumes, Paris' 1949

A handwritten dedication to N. Kazantzakis

1928.On January 11, Kazantzakis and Istrati address a throng in the Alhambra Theater, praising the Soviet experiment. This leads to a demostration in the streets. Kazantzakis and Dimitrios Glinos, who organized the event, are threatened with legal action, Istrati with deportation.

April finds both Istrati and Kazantzakis back in Russia , in Kiev, where Kazantzakis writes a film scenario on the Russian Revolution. In Moscow in June, Kazantzakis and Istrati meet Gorki. Kazantzakis changes the ending of "Askitiki", adding the " Silence". He writes articles for Pravda about social conditions in Greece, then undertakes another scenario, this time on the life of Lenin. Traveling with Istrati to Murmansk, he passes through Leningrad and meets Victor Serge. In July, Barbusse's periodical "Monde" publishes a profile of Kazantzakis by Istrati; this is Kazantzakis's first introduction to the European reading public.

At the end of August, Kazantzakis and Istrati joined by Eleni Samiou and Istrati's companion Bilili Baud-Bovy, undertake a long journey in southern Russia with the object of co-authoring a series of articles entitled "Following the Red Star". But the two friends become increasingly estranged. Their differences are brought to a boil in December by the "Roussakov affair," that is, the persecution of Victor Serge and his father-in-law, Roussakov, as Trotskyists. In Athens, a publisher brings out Kazantzakis' Russian travel articles in two volumes.

1931. Back in Greece, he settles again on Aegina , working on a French-Greek dictionary (demotic as well as katharevusa).

In June, in Paris, he visits the Colonial Exhibition; this gives him fresh ideas for the African scenes in the Odyssey , whose third draft he completes in his hideaway in Czechoslovakia.

1937. In Aegina, he completes the sixth draft of the Odyssey . His travel book on Spain is published. In September he tours the Peloponnesus. His impressions are published in article form; later they will become "Journey to the Morea". He writes the tragedy "Melissa " for the Royal Theate.

1943. Working energetically despite the privations of the German occupation, Kazantzakis completes the second drafts of "Buddha", "Alexis Zorbasά" and the "Iliad" translation.

Then he writes a new version of Aeschylus's "Prometheus" trilogy.

In the spring and summer he writes the plays "Capodistria " and "Constantine Palaiologos". Together with the "Prometheus" trilogy, these cover ancient, Byzantine, and modern Greece.

After the German withdrawal, Kazantzakis moves immediately to Athens, where he is offered hospitality by Tea Anemoyanni. He witnesses the phase of the civil war called the "Dekemvriana" (the December events).

Fulfilling his vow to re-enter politics, he becomes the leader of a small socialist party whose aim is to unite all the splinter groups of the noncommunist left. He is denied admission to the Academy of Athens by two votes.

The government sends him on a fact-finding mission to Crete to verify the German atrocities there. In November he marries his longtime companion Eleni Samiou and is sworn in as Minister without Portfolio in the Sofoulis coalition government.

Borje Knos, the Swedish intellectual and government official, translates "Alexis Zorbas'" Kazantzakis, after pulling many strings, is appointed to a post at UNESCO, his job being to facilitate translations of the world's classics in order to build bridges between cultures, especially between East and West

He himself translates his play "Julian the Apostate". Alexis Zorbas is published in Paris.

1953. He is hospitalized in Paris, still suffering from the eye infection (he eventually loses his right eye). Examinations reveal a lymphatic disorder that has presumably caused his facial symptoms throughout the years. Back in Antibes , he spends a month with Professor Kakridis perfecting their translation of the "Iliad" .

He writes the novel "Saint Francis" . In Greece, the Orthodox Church seeks to prosecute Kazantzakis for sacrilege owing to several pages of Kapetan Mihalis and the whole of "The Last Temptation ", even though the latter still has not been published in Greek. "Zorba the Greek "is published in New York

1954.The Pope places "The Last Temptation " on the Roman Catholic Index of Forbidden Books. Kazantzakis telegraphs the Vatican a phrase from the Christian apologist Tertullian: "Ad tuum, Domine, tribunal appello" (I lodge my appeal at your tribunal, Lord). He says the same to the Orthodox hierarchy in Athens, adding: "You gave me your curse, holy Fathers. I give you a blessing: May your conscience be as clear as mine, and may you be as moral and religious as I am."

In the summer Kazantzakis begins a daily collaboration with Kimon Friar, who is translating the "Odyssey" into English. In December he attends the premiere of "Sodom and Gomorrah" in Mannheim, Germany, after which he enters hospital at Freiburg im Breisgau for treatment. His disease is diagnosed as being lymphatic leukemia.

The young publisher Yannis Goudelis undertakes to bring out Kazantzakis' collected works in Athens .

Kazantzakis and Eleni spend a month in a rest home in Lugano, Switzerland. There, Kazantzakis begins his spiritual autobiography, "Report to Greco". In August they visit Albert Schweitzer in Gunsbach.

Back in Antibes, Kazantzakis is consulted by Jules Dassin regarding the scenario for a movie of "Christ Recrucified". The Kazantzakis-Kakridis translation of the "Iliad" comes out in Greece, paid for by the translators because no publisher will accept it.

A second, revised edition of the "Odyssey" is prepared in Athens under the supervision of Emmanuel Kasdaglis, who also edits the first volume of Kazantzakis' collected plays. The " Last Temptation "finally appears in Greece, after a "royal personage" intervenes with the government on Kazantzakis' behalf.

With Albert Schweitzer and Eleni in Germany

1956. In June, Kazantzakis receives the Peace Prize n Vienna. He continues to collaborate with Kimon Friar. He loses the Nobel Prize at the last moment to Juan Ramon Jimenez.

Dassin completes the film of "Christ Recrucified", calling it "Celui qui doit mourir (He Who Must Die)".

The Collected Works procceed; they now include two more volumes of plays, several volumes of travel articles, "Toda-Raba" translated from French into Greek, and Saint Francis.

Another view of his study

At the Peace Prize award ceremony in Vienna

NEA (11/7/56): Ουδείς Έλλην επίσημος παρέστη...

Kazantzakis continues to work with Kimon Friar . A long interview with Pierre Sipriot is broadcast in six installments over Paris radio.

Kazantzakis attends the showing of "Celui qui doit mourir" at the Cannes film festival. The Parisian publisher Plon agrees to bring out his "Collected Works" in French translation.

Kazantzakis and Eleni depart for China as the guests of the Chinese government . Because his return flight is via Japan, he is forced to be vaccinated in Canton. Over the North Pole the vaccination swells and his arm begins to turn gangrenous. He is taken for treatment at the hospital in Freiburg im Breisgau where his leukemia was originally diagnosed. The crisis passes.

Albert Schweitzer comes to congratulate him, but then an epidemic of Asiatic flu quickly overcomes him in his weakened condition.

He dies on 26 October, aged 74 years. His body arrives in Athens. The Greek Orthodox Church refuses to allow it to lie in state. The body is transferred to Crete, where it is viewed in the cathedral church of Iraklion. A huge procession follows it to interment on the Venetian ramparts .

Later, Kazantzakis' chosen epitaph is inscribed on the tomb :

"Den elpizo tipota. Den fovumai tipota. Eimai eleftheros." (I hope for nothing. I fear nothing. I am free.)

In Cannes for the premiere of the film based on "Christ Recrucified" ("Celui qui doit mourir")
with Jules Dassin and Melina Mercouri

With Kimon Friar in Antibes

In Cannes for the premiere of the film based on "Christ Recrucified" ("Celui qui doit mourir") with Jules Dassin and Melina Mercouri

Signing the French edition of "God's Pauper"

5th November. Nikos Kazantzakis' funeral ceremony at the Cathedral of Saint Minas in Heraklion

The funeral procession in Heraklion

Where does the Antichrist lie?

ESTIA (22/1/54): Book reviles Crete and Religion

KATHIMERINI (26/1/54): Emilios Hourmouzios: Intellectual McCarthyism

TO VIMA (16/5/54): G. Phteris: The Church and Literature

KATHIMERINI (18/11/54): Emilios Hourmouzios: A work of true faith

KATHIMERINI (2/12/54): Emilios Hourmouzios: Two elements of the myth

SPITHA (November 1957)

KATHIMERINI (18/11/54): Emilios Hourmouzios on Christ Recrucified (1)

KATHIMERINI (18/11/54): Emilios Hourmouzios on Christ Recrucified (2)

TA NEA (11/7/56): Not one Greek VIP attended...

TA NEA (16/5/55): This is Paris calling! You are listening to Kazantzakis (1)

PANTHRAKIKI (18/8/56): The fortunes and honour of an empire

TACHYDHROMOS (2/3/57): "Give me a little of the time you waste"

ETHNIKOS KIRYX (19/10/56): "He who must die"

AVGE (4/12/57): "Christ Recrucified"

MESOGEIOS : N. Kazantzakis' corpse flown in...

DRASI : Pangs of sadness...

"Zorba the Greek", Greek
Difros, 1955

"Christ Recrucified", Greek
Difros, 1955

Freedom or Death, Difros (2nd edition)
Athens, 1955

The "Odyssey", English, Simon and Schuster
New York, 1958

"Zorba the Greek", French
Editions du Chene, 1947